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Araucaria by Roman Bonnefoy,

Outback Gondwana

Years (ca)

30–16,000 B.P.

60-42,000 B.P


Extinction of Australia’s Megafauna

The first evidence of human colonisation of Australia

2 Ma

Megafauna dominates

25 Ma

Opal formation

65 Ma

Extinction of the Dinosaurs

95 Ma

Eromanga dinosaur ‘Cooper’

110 Ma

Eromanga Sea inundates the Eromanga Basin

115-95 Ma

Eromanga Basin
subsidence/ uplifting

128 Ma

meteorite impact, Eromanga

250-205 Ma

Eromanga Basin forms
(Great Artesian Basin)

298-250 Ma

Cooper Basin forms

354-298 Ma

Lush peat lands form
(future coal & gas reserves)

410-354 Ma

Adavale Basin forms

434-410 Ma

Uplifting emerges land

500-550 Ma

Gondwana forms

4.6 Ga

Earth forms


BP = Before Present
Ma = Million Years Ago
Ga = Billion Years Ago
ca = approximate

References for Time Line

Outback Gondwana Foundation

Outback Gondwana Foundation (OGF), along with our valuable supporters and volunteers, strives to ensure Outback Gondwana’s heritage is not lost to science but discovered, preserved and accurately documented for perpetuity.

With so much still to be discovered and recorded in this unique area of Australia, the history books on Outback Gondwana are yet to be written.

Preserving the past
Protecting the future
Discovering natural Australia



White, M.E (1999), Reading the Rocks: Animals and plants in prehistoric Australia and New Zealand, Kangaroo Press, Roseville, p.40.

Gondwana was the ancient, southern supercontinent that formed 550-500 Ma (million years ago), after a series of tectonic events amalgamated the land masses of present-day South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, Australia and Antarctica.

Gondwana remained a relatively stable landmass until ~167 Ma, when it began to subdivide. Today, New Guinea, Australia and Tasmania still remain connected by a thin continental shelf and represent the largest remnant fragment of Gondwana.

Scientists have been able to confirm the concept of Gondwana by studying the distribution of fossil fauna and flora found in the now separate land masses.


Outback Gondwana

Outback Gondwana encompasses the geological, palaeontological, archaeological and natural history record that exists in Outback South-west Queensland. This ancient landscape has witnessed: prehistoric life, early human settlement and pioneering efforts, as well as timeless geological and climatic forces, which have shaped Australia and continue to do so.

Australia’s Outback not only reveals ancient evidence which unlocks secrets of the past, but it also offers to the inquisitive mind, keys to the future. For it is only by understanding how our unique biosphere has evolved over time, that we may best plan for future challenges, which will face this ancient, island continent that is Australia.


Blue Hills, SWQ by Outback Gondwana Foundation ©

Blue Hills, South-west Queensland - what Outback Gondwana looks like today.